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Fluorescence in PCR Diagnostics

PCR diagnostics makes it possible to detect and sequence DNA. RT-PCR is used to detect or sequence RNA. In a first step, the RNA is transkripted into DNA using reverse transkritase and then amplified in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, the DNA sections are sequenced... Learn more about it in this article.

Multiphoton (Fluorescence) Microscopy

In multiphoton microscopy, molecules are transformed into an electronically excited state by several photons. From this state, these molecules relax back into the electronic ground state by emission of a photon. This has the consequence that the emitted photon has a higher energy (shorter wavelength) than the photons for excitation.

TIRF Microscopy

Total Internal Reflections Fluorescence Microscopy is a special application of (fluorescence) confocal microscopy. TIRF microscopy typically uses a high numerical aperture (NA) objective.

FRET Microscopy

The ‘Förster (or Fluorescence) Resonance Energy Transfer Microscopy’ is a specialized application of fluorescence microscopy. In the FRET effect, energy is transferred from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. The efficiency of this energy transfer decreases with the sixths power of the distance and also depends on the orientation of the molecules. Due to this strong distance dependency, one can optically measure distances from 0 to approx. 10 nm.

CARS Microscopy

CARS stands for Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering. It is a non-linear Raman spectroscopy method which not only uses an excitation laser, but also irradiates the sample with a second, red-shifted so-called Stokes-laser.

STORM Microscopy

STORM stands for 'STochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy'. Together with PALM (Photoactivated Localization Micrsocopy) and GSDIM (Ground-State Depletion and Individual Molecule Return) and many other similar methods, these are single-molecule localization methods operating in the far-field mode.

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM)

Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a special type of light microscopy in which a sample is scanned point by point and then these points are assembled pixel by pixel on a computer to create an image.
'Super-resolution microscopy' or 'imaging' generally refers to any microscopic technique capable of performing images with resolution below the diffraction limit.

Fluorescence Microscopy

Fluorescence microscopy is a special form of light microscopy, which has established itself worldwide and is often used in the field of life sciences thanks to its advantages in terms of contrast, selectivity and simplicity of staining.

Raman Spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy is used to measure vibrational and rotational transitions of molecules, similar to IR spectroscopy (with different selection rules). The difference is that Raman spectroscopy does not use IR light, but visible light. This makes it possible to use detectors and optics that are standard in optics.

STED Microscopy

STED microscopy (STED = Stimulated Emission Depletion), as a high-resolution method operating in scan mode, has special requirements for the properties of its optical components.